You can have Hepatitis B and not know it. You may not have symptoms. If you do, they can make you feel like you have the flu. But as long as you have the virus, you can spread it to others.
Hepatitis B is a potentially life-threatening liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It is a major global health problem. It can cause chronic infection and puts people at high risk of death from cirrhosis and liver cancer.
So what causes hepatitis B?
It’s caused by the hepatitis B virus. It is spread through contact with the blood and body fluids of an infected person.
You may get hepatitis B if you:
- Have sex with an infected person without using a condom.
- Share needles (used for injecting drugs) with an infected person.
- Get a tattoo or piercing with tools that weren’t sterilized.
- Share personal items like razors or toothbrushes with an infected person.
The hepatitis B virus can survive outside the body for at least 7 days. During this time, the virus can still cause infection if it enters the body of a person who is not protected by the vaccine. The incubation period of the hepatitis B virus is 75 days on average, but can vary from 30 to 180 days. The virus may be detected within 30 to 60 days after infection and can persist and develop into chronic hepatitis B.
In highly endemic areas, hepatitis B is most commonly spread from mother to child at birth (perinatal transmission), or through horizontal transmission (exposure to infected blood), especially from an infected child to an uninfected child during the first 5 years of life. The development of chronic infection is very common in infants infected from their mothers or before the age of 5 years
Let us look at some common symptoms of hepatitis B
Many people with hepatitis B don’t know they have it, because they don’t have symptoms. If you do have symptoms, you may just feel like you have the flu. Symptoms include:
- Feeling very tired.
- Mild fever.
- Not wanting to eat.
- Feeling sick to your stomach or vomiting.
- Belly pain.
- Tan-colored bowel movements (stools).
- Dark urine.
- Yellowish eyes and skin (jaundice). Jaundice usually appears only after other symptoms have started to go away.
Most people with chronic hepatitis B have no symptoms.
How is it treated?
In most cases, hepatitis B goes away on its own. You can relieve your symptoms at home by resting, eating healthy foods, drinking plenty of water, and avoiding alcohol and drugs. Also, find out from your doctor what medicines and herbal products to avoid, because some can make liver damage caused by hepatitis B worse.
Treatment for chronic hepatitis B depends on whether your infection is getting worse and whether you have liver damage. Most people with chronic hepatitis B can live active, full lives by taking good care of themselves and getting regular checkups. There are medicines for chronic hepatitis B, but they may not be right for everyone. Work with your doctor to decide if medicine is right for you.
Sometimes, chronic hepatitis B can lead to severe liver damage. If this happens, you may need a liver transplant.
The hepatitis B vaccine is the best way to prevent infection. The vaccine is a series of 3 or 4 shots. Adults at risk and all babies, children, and teenagers should be vaccinated.
Simple ways to prevent hepatitis B
o avoid getting or spreading the virus to others:
- Use a condom when you have sex.
- Don’t share needles.
- Wear latex or plastic gloves if you have to touch blood.
- Don’t share toothbrushes or razors.
- Don’t get a tattoo, or make sure that the needles used have been cleaned properly and are sterile.